When you look at the file names of Amazon eBooks, you will see the ASIN # embedded in the filename; also you will see it embedded in the title if you bring it over to Calibre. Finally, if you look at the collections.json file on the kindle, you will see how Amazon stores eBooks from their store in collections. It involves the title and the ASIN # at least. I haven't looked closely enough to see whether author is also included.
I don't know whether it would therefore be possible to fake Amazon out using Calibre or not. One must also take into account that a lot of information about books bought from Amazon is maintained in your account on the Amazon servers/archive. So even if all the metadata was correct, if it does not match the data held by Amazon in your account, it may not work correctly.