What about We
, by Yevgeny Zamyatin? It's dystopian SF. It's not set in outer space, but the main character is a spaceship designer. What I'm thinking the connection might be is that all of the characters are referred to as "numbers," not as people. The characters' names are also pseudo-random combinations of letters and digits (D-503, O-90, etc.), which might be the connection to another book's title (Ralph 124C41+
). "Mathematics novel" connection-the spaceship being designed is called "The Integral."
It's obviously more than 20 years old, but there was a new English translation by Clarence Brown published by Penguin in 1993 that got it a lot more exposure.