Many thanks for clarifying.
works published before Jan 1 1923 in the United States are PD
works published 50 years after the author's death are PD in Canada
all other works are generally copyrighted
But there are other grey areas for works published in magazines and newspapers where the publication no longer exists and copyright cannot be determined? Leading to some more recent works, by more recently deceased authors, in dispute?
And what about translations? The rules apply to author and translator equally, would they not? Unless the original is PD and the translator chooses to make his/her rendition PD as well? Here I am thinking of works by Hermann Hesse, in particular Demian.
Generally, are the Canadian applicable in GB and AU?