Wow. OK, I've never heard of a display being driven over USB before, but it seems that that one is. An so yes, I suspect that if installing Debian on a Kindle gives you the ability to drive the USB post as a host USB port, then it might be possible to write a driver that would drive that display.
It's probably going to be writing that display that's the really hard bit, if others have already done the Kindle/Debian port.
The page of info I found only shows Windows and Mac OS X (intel) drivers. No open source drivers, but perhaps there are some out there that you could adapt.
An interesting project, and more feasible than replacing the eInk directly with an LCD.