(August 13, 1851 – April 24, 1933) was a Jewish professor of political and social ethics, rationalist, popular lecturer, religious leader and social reformer who founded the Ethical Culture movement, and is often considered one of the main influences on modern Humanistic Judaism.
From the Contents - the texts were published in 1904:
1. The Essentials of Spirituality
2. THE SPIRITUAL ATTITUDE TOWARD ONE’S NEIGHBOR.
3. THE SPIRITUAL ATTITUDE TOWARD OPPRESSORS.
4. THE TWO SOULS IN THE HUMAN BREAST.
The first essential is an awakening, a sense of the absence of spirituality, the realized need of giving to our lives a new and higher quality; first there must be the hunger before there can be the satisfaction.
Similar effects are often produced by widely differing processes. In the psychical world that quality which we call spirituality may be associated with and evoked by Theism, or the belief in a Divine Father; by Pantheism, as in the case of Spinoza, whose face at the very first glance impresses you with its spiritual cast; or even by the Buddhist belief in Nirvana. It may also be attained by following the precepts and striving after the ideals of Ethical Culture. For spirituality is not indissolubly associated with any one type of religion or philosophy; it is a quality of soul manifesting itself in a variety of activities and beliefs.
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