View Full Version : small caps


yuxi_kelly
05-25-2011, 06:13 AM
if I use INDD to create an epub, the small caps show well on ipad.
BUT it do not work on Adobe Digital Editions.

BUT my book has 40 headers for every chapter, all of them are caps and small caps.

Who can tell me a easy way to get small caps show well both in ipad and ADE?

I do not want to write <span>ABC</span> for every small caps in Dreamweaver. crying crying

begging,

roger64
05-25-2011, 06:53 AM
Hello

This is a tricky field.

ADE requires true small caps and does not recognize emulated small caps.

The usual (MS) fonts lack a true small cap font though. So, if you want to add true small caps, you should consider using embedded fonts. But some e-readers don't recognize embedded fonts. A catch 22 problem...

If your headers have small caps, they should be recognized as such but you must give them in the CSS stylesheet not only a font-variant:small-caps but mainly a font-family with small-caps support. The span element is required only for text within a paragraph.

Now that I have been pretty unclear, I let you consider one EPUB like the joint one. It makes use of embedded fonts, small-caps for titles and part of text. Could be an example of what I meant to say.

Bon courage.:)

I cooked this EPUB with writer2xhtml (short is W2X) and Sigil.

Adjust
05-25-2011, 07:00 AM
If you have a small cap style applied in ID.
Then you can open the xhtml files in textwrangler or another editor which does regular expressions (GREP)
search for what ever the line is, for example:

<p class="bodytext"><span class="smallcaps">This is the small caps</span>and this is the rest of the paragraph text</p>

Find/change in text editor
Find
<span class="smallcaps">(.*?)</span>
Replace
<span class="smallcaps">\U\1\l</span>

Then in your css you just need the
span.smallcaps{
font-size: 85%
}

This method "fakes" small caps by making the type uppercase but smaller

Jellby
05-25-2011, 07:35 AM
The trick proposed by Adjust could be done in CSS with:

span.smallcaps{
text-transform: uppercase;
font-size: 85%
}

if "text-transform" was included in the ePUB spec, which it is not. The drawback is that you can't easily code MIXED SIZE SMALL CAPS.

roger64
05-25-2011, 09:35 AM
Hi

I took a lot of my science about this from
http://blog.hypsometry.com/articles/true-small-capitals-with-font-face/

Adjust
05-25-2011, 08:49 PM
The trick proposed by Adjust could be done in CSS with:

span.smallcaps{
text-transform: uppercase;
font-size: 85%
}

if "text-transform" was included in the ePUB spec, which it is not. The drawback is that you can't easily code MIXED SIZE SMALL CAPS.

Using the text-transform:uppercase DOES NOT work in Adobe Digital Editions, or desktop Kindle viewer.

Only works in iBooks

This is why I use my method.

Jellby
05-26-2011, 05:32 AM
Using the text-transform:uppercase DOES NOT work in Adobe Digital Editions, or desktop Kindle viewer.

I know, "text-transform" is not in the spec, and you can count on it being supported anywhere. I just say that it would be fine (but not perfect yet) if it worked.

Adjust
05-26-2011, 05:35 AM
Ah, ok. I misread your post, apologies

JSWolf
06-01-2011, 11:32 PM
If you want the best possible small caps, find a good body font family that also has a small caps variety and use them.

Adjust
06-02-2011, 12:32 AM
If you want the best possible small caps, find a good body font family that also has a small caps variety and use them.

Find a good FREE font family that also has small caps and use them.

1.5 Embedding of the Font Software into electronic documents or Internet pages is only permitted under the absolute assurance that the recipient cannot use the Font Software to edit or create a new document (read-only). It must be ensured that the Font Software cannot be fully or partially extracted from said documents.

http://www.linotype.com/2061-28225/licenseagreementforfontsoftwarendashlinotypeeula.h tml

bobcdy
06-02-2011, 01:08 AM
As for a free pd font with all caps, I use garava font from aimwell.org. Google garava font. It's a very comprehensive font family with several varations including smallcaps.

Adjust
06-02-2011, 01:20 AM
Wow, I think a wall of that font would be hard to read, the serifs are very fine...

JSWolf
06-02-2011, 06:08 PM
As for a free pd font with all caps, I use garava font from aimwell.org. Google garava font. It's a very comprehensive font family with several varations including smallcaps.

Charis SIL is the font that most publishers use when they embed a font. Charis SIL has small caps built in, but ADE cannot access them. But using SIL TypeTuner, you can create a small caps version by extracting the small caps from the SIL font.

DaleDe
06-02-2011, 09:19 PM
Find a good FREE font family that also has small caps and use them.

1.5 Embedding of the Font Software into electronic documents or Internet pages is only permitted under the absolute assurance that the recipient cannot use the Font Software to edit or create a new document (read-only). It must be ensured that the Font Software cannot be fully or partially extracted from said documents.

http://www.linotype.com/2061-28225/licenseagreementforfontsoftwarendashlinotypeeula.h tml

It is possible to encrypt fonts (obfuscate) in the folder to prevent their use by simply extracting them. Actually is is not really DRM but it passes the test identified above. ADE supports this but uses a slightly different scheme that the standard.

Dale

Adjust
06-02-2011, 09:53 PM
Yeah, even still, I'm not comfortable encrypting licensed fonts for inclusion for commercial products.

I actually know someone in my industry who got a visit by the font police...

DaleDe
06-03-2011, 11:44 AM
Yeah, even still, I'm not comfortable encrypting licensed fonts for inclusion for commercial products.

I actually know someone in my industry who got a visit by the font police...

You are correct at being concerned. It takes careful reading of the license to ensure you are not in violation of the rules. The fonts wiki page list some free ones to download but copyright violation is serious. At MobileRead we do not ever condone copyright violation.

Dale

bobcdy
06-04-2011, 12:25 AM
JSWolf,
Thanks for the info about the Charis fonts. I downloaded the 'tuned' Sil fonts, and found that the Type Tuner was a great resource for selecting the small cap fonts. However, the problem with the Sil SC fonts are they don't conform well to what typographers seem to define as a well-formed small cap font.

http://ilovetypography.com/2008/02/20/small-caps/

"Generally speaking, small caps are about as tall as the font’s x-height. Look, for instance, at Minion Pro’s lower case m compared to a small cap Minion Pro m; it’s marginally taller than the lowercase m and the font’s x-height. Other typefaces have small caps that are the same height as the x-height, while others still stand a little shorter."

Correctly-formed small caps have the "capital" letters about the same size as a normal font capitals, and the "small case" letters are about a tall as the normal font lower case but in capitals.

My experience with old books from the late 18th and early19th century, is that these small caps fonts conform to the above, and in order to emulate as far as possible those typefaces in my epubs, I don't believe that the SIL small caps fonts are suitable because the lower case letters are too tall.

The ITC minion pro SC fonts would be ideal but are commercial fonts. The Garava sc font I mentioned is not much better that the SIL sc font but I modified it, with permission, to provide a 'petite' caps font with larger upper case letters. I probably went too far with this font though because the upper case letters are a bit too tall, but I like it better that way. I agree though that it is not ideal for epubs because it's a little hard to read (although no one should make a large section of text as small case).

ldolse
06-04-2011, 08:46 PM
Roger64 provided a great example previously using LinLibertine, but I didn't see anyone mention the Fell fonts he uses in his linked blog post. These fonts are also free under the Sil license and gorgeous for this use, particularly for period books.

A link directly to the fonts page:
http://iginomarini.com/fell/the-revival-fonts/

One interesting bit, I was just playing around with the Fell fonts in an ePub. The OpenType fonts don't have a dedicated small-caps typeface, but the small-caps glyphs are included in several of the fonts. I wasn't able to get small-caps to display with the OpenType font faces, is there something special that can be done in the CSS to accommodate this, or do I have to just use the dedicated ttf typeface?

bobcdy
06-04-2011, 10:45 PM
Idolse,
As far as I know, one needs a dedicated small cap font to be able to type the letters with a computer keyboard. Otherwise one needs to use a special program such as 'Popchar' to insert the small caps where needed. This is a pretty slow process for using small caps in an epub.

If the owner of the font, such as the Fell fonts allows alteration of the font with a font program such as 'fontforge' or 'FontCreator', then one can fairly easily change the font so that the small caps are located where the lower case letters normally would be. This would work as a normal small caps font, although there might be problems with kerning if one didn't work on it.

(After posting the above material, I downloaded the Fell fonts and studied them with FontCreator. The Fell fonts may look ok on the web, and probably are usable for epubs but they are pretty crude when shown in FontCreator. I remembered then that I had done the same thing some time ago and decided they were not sufficiently well-formed for my use - perhaps this conclusion was a bit harsh, and perhaps I might try them if the small caps were accessible with the computer keyboard. I'll try emailing the author and see if he's willing for them to be altered or if he has a small cap font already done.)

ldolse
06-04-2011, 11:49 PM
(The Fell fonts may look ok on the web, and probably are usable for epubs but they are pretty crude when shown in FontCreator. I remembered then that I had done the same thing some time ago and decided they were not sufficiently well-formed for my use - perhaps this conclusion was a bit harsh, and perhaps I might try them if the small caps were accessible with the computer keyboard. I'll try emailing the author and see if he's willing for them to be altered or if he has a small cap font already done.)

Not sure if you mean the way the fonts are built or the appearance - I suspect you're referring to how they're built, but I think the appearance is a bit crude on purpose. For period books I don't have a problem with the appearance.

The ttf download did have dedicated smallcaps options accessible from a keyboard, so I suppose it would be straightforward to convert those to otf if that was preferred.

bobcdy
06-05-2011, 01:04 AM
You're correct - the true type files have 'sc' fonts that look pretty good unless greatly magnified. With FontCreator, with glyphs-magnify options, the individual glyphs are very crude compared to commercial (or even the better class of non-commercial ones), but they should be adequate for epubs. And perhaps the font author intentionally incorporated the crudeness to emulate the old type.

I didn't realize that the otf and the ttf fonts differed - previously, and this time before you pointed out the difference, I had downloaded the otf fonts and found they did not have keyboard useable sc fonts. The true type sc fonts have the proper sizes of 'capitals' and 'lower case' and I think they should look much better than my usual small cap fonts or the Sil tuned small cap fonts.

Thanks for pointing out my incorrect assumption about ttf and otf!